• In 1684, Dr. Nehemiah Grew published friction ridge skin observations in the “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London” paper.
  • The 1685 book, “Anatomy of the Human Body” by Govard Bidloo, also described friction ridge skin details.
  • In 1686, University of Bologna anatomy professor Marcello Malpighi noted fingerprint ridges, spirals and loops in his dissertation.